Autonomous driving Levels: what are the differences?

Driving assistance, autonomous driving systems, 100% autonomous cars. What is behind these terms and what are the different autonomous driving Levels?



Driving assistance, autonomous driving systems, 100% autonomous cars... What is behind these terms and what are the different autonomous driving Levels?

Would you be willing to let your car manage everything for you?

Autonomous driving Levels


The subject of the autonomous car has been occupying car manufacturers and the media a lot in recent months. The digital technologies embedded in the car will make the product a connected object, an infotainment platform that in the future will simplify the user's life. By placing the customer experience at the heart of their various strategies (connected, autonomous, electrified cars, services), carmakers want to adapt to the new consumption needs of customers.


Today, practically all mobility players, and many more, have focused on autonomous vehicles. Tesla, the PSA group, Renault, Google Waymo, Mercedes, Uber, Volvo... all are working on car autonomy, even if some carmakers have had to revise their roadmap recently and redirect funds for research and investment in this area to other sectors, such as energy transition.



What do autonomous driving Levels really mean?

When we talk about autonomous driving, we tend to think it's all or nothing, and many manufacturers claim to offer autonomous cars. However, there are different autonomous driving levels.

Admittedly, there is no official classification of current and future models. But the players are basing themselves on a grid developed in 2014 by SAE International, formerly the Society of Automotive Engineers.

It is at the origin of the classification into six categories, making it possible to define what human drivers and/or autonomous systems can and cannot do.

Autonomous driving Levels


Legislation has never been very clear about autonomous vehicles. There was often confusion between autopilot and autonomous piloting. Autopilot is still a very advanced driver assistance system, but it cannot do without a human driver. The opposite is true of autonomous driving, which must be able to do without a human presence.


 Defining what human drivers and autonomous systems can and cannot do


In 2014, SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) International, a professional organization of scientists and engineers, has proposed a grid for understanding and classifying autonomous vehicles. This grid is therefore the basis for the classification into categories, defining what human drivers and autonomous systems can and cannot do.

It also serves as a reference for manufacturers and governments who regularly address the various issues related to future mobility, sometimes directly related to autonomous systems. The International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers  has also defined a European scale with six levels of autonomy for vehicles, a system similar to the one designed by the SAE.

In order to be able to understand the subject, I suggest that you decipher the different SAE levels, i.e. autonomous driving levels, and why it is important to know them before choosing your next autonomous car.


Level 0: no autonomy or assistance

As its name suggests, it is the zero level of autonomy and assistance. Understand that all driving is done by the human driver, not assisted by the vehicle. It is therefore a vehicle without driving assistance. Here, there is no cruise control, no automatic emergency braking or even lane keeping assistance.

In this category, all the visual aids of the last century are present: if your car is able to tell you that you are running out of petrol or engine oil, it is a warning of a danger but not a driving aid.

Autonomous driving Levels


Level 1: driver assistance, eyes on-hands on

 This is generally what we find on the majority of our cars today. The driver is obviously present 100% of the time and the car is not supposed to make any decision "alone". The driver can have access to assistance which concerns either longitudinal control (speed and distance from preceding vehicles) or lateral control of the vehicle (following white lines) but not both at the same time. Level 1 equipment includes: cruise control, line-crossing radar, automatic emergency braking, collision warning, power steering.


Level 2: partial automation, eyes on-hands off

 This is the level that tends to become more democratic in all our modern cars. Even if the legislator does not allow it, which is why cars regularly tell you to put your hands on the steering wheel when you don't, you can theoretically let go of the controls for a few seconds and let the car do the work. Of course, the driver must keep an eye on his environment so that he can quickly regain control if a problem occurs.

In certain situations, the driver can delegate both longitudinal and lateral control of the vehicle to the system, however, the driver remains responsible for supervision.

Autonomous driving Levels


It is up to the driver to keep an eye on the system at all times and monitor the vehicle environment and regain full control if necessary.

Aids such as adaptive cruise control or lane keeping fall into this category, as well as their combination. The high-end models of some manufacturers now incorporate these technologies, such as the Audi e-tron Sportback and the Nissane Leaf, which know how to move by themselves, but are not aware of their entire environment. Other functions include the famous "Park Assist", now present on many vehicles, which allows the car to park by itself.




Level 3: conditional autonomy, eyes off-hands off

From this level, vehicles are able to see their driving environment and therefore act accordingly. Level 3 indicates that the driver must be able to regain control of the vehicle at all times, but that the vehicle is fully autonomous under certain driving conditions.

This means that driving can be fully delegated to the machine but only under pre-defined conditions, for example on motorways.

Today, some production cars oscillate between levels 2 and 3. This is notably the case of Tesla, which until a few years ago offered a very convincing automatic driving system, but today unfortunately constrained by the legislator's standards that force the brand to revise its copy. Nevertheless, at Tesla, the car uses cameras and radars to understand its environment and apprehend the dangers, overtake alone when the indicator is on, maintain the course, decelerate if necessary and keep a safe distance. This level should allow it to do all this in complete autonomy, which is why it is still today between level 2 and 3, not filling all the boxes of level 3.



Level 4: high autonomy, eyes off-hands off-mind off

 The vehicle is driven completely autonomously, i.e. without even the necessary presence of a driver on board. The system bears responsibility for all the actions it will carry out, in particular concerning maneuvers or its decisions according to the evolution of the environment.

From this level, no assistance from the "driver" is required. However, total autonomy is limited to predefined conditions: a specific geographical area, for example a motorway or a car park with which the vehicle is compatible, weather conditions (snowy weather, fog-free weather, etc.).

When these criteria are met, the driver is no longer responsible for driving, which he delegates to the system in full. However, he is still obliged to resume driving when the vehicle leaves this automated driving zone. In contrast to level 3, if the driver fails to react, the vehicle must be able to exit on its own or stop on a motorway apron.

 
Level 5: complete high autonomy, driverless

Here, there is no more human intervention or road conditions: the vehicle is 100% autonomous. The vehicle can perform absolutely all driving tasks and is not subject to any human intervention. Whether it is on the motorway or in the city centre, it is capable of driving in total autonomy. All the big companies are working on this, like Google for example and its famous Google Car, or Uber. There is not even a steering wheel anymore, it is the car that makes all the right decisions without human intervention. If it wishes, it can even ignore a human order if artificial intelligence considers it dangerous.


"Drivers will be freed from the obligation to drive and will be able to focus their attention on other activities: work, relaxation, communication, entertainment, and so on. And this newly liberated time will blur the boundaries between home, work and leisure, arousing the interest of a large number of players," David Weill, Vice President Strategy of Faurecia Interiors.


Human driving becomes a pleasure option, with vehicle autonomy as the norm. Control elements such as the steering wheel or pedals are no longer necessary.


When will 100% autonomous cars be available?

Certainly not for tomorrow, as we read all over the place a few years ago. While manufacturers are generally well advanced in this respect, it is the legislator who will have the last word. There are still many parameters to be taken into account and the range of a vehicle depends not only on the vehicle itself, but also on the environment around it. For example, cities will also have to be connected in order to smooth traffic flow or to send information to autonomous vehicles.


We have also recently noted a small drop in interest from car manufacturers regarding vehicle autonomy, especially since some short-term issues are more important, such as those related to the energy transition. The budget dedicated to research and development for autonomous cars has had to be cut in some cases and transferred to other sectors, such as electric power trains or batteries.

Some manufacturers are also delegating these activities to companies specializing in new technologies. This is the case of the Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance, which has teamed up with Waymo, a company owned by Google, to assess market opportunities and to work together to provide a commercial, legal and regulatory framework for the autonomous automobile.
While the term "autonomous driving" is indeed confusing, what we traditionally confuse with autopilot (which is a very advanced driving assistance) is the range of a vehicle.

An autonomous car can only claim this title if, indeed, it can completely do without a human driver.


However, this level of autonomy represents an enormous degree of constraint. And when it comes to safety, public expectations are very high, with a near-zero tolerance for injury or death caused by these machines.

According to John Krafcik, head of Waymo, the autonomous car division at Alphabet (Google's parent company), it will be decades before these cars can hit the roads. In any case, they may still need a driver.

For engineers, the autonomous car is probably the most difficult problem facing humanity.

In the world of the future, your car may be the continuation of your home and office. You will no longer drive, you will have time to do what you need or want to do...





COMMENTS

BLOGGER:

3/random/post-list
Name

100w charger,1,1080i vs 1080p,1,120 watt,1,365 dni,1,3GPP,1,4K HDR,7,4K Ultra HD TVs,2,5G,4,64-bit,1,8K UltraHD,2,account privacy,5,acquesition,1,add an iptv m3u file to kodi,1,add contact to whatsapp,1,adevinta,1,ads,1,adventures,1,advertising,3,AI,2,airdrop,3,alexa,2,alexa for apps,1,Alibaba,1,all tv channels online,1,Alta Mar,1,alternatives to google translate,1,alternatives to Netflix,1,amazon,12,amazon marketplace,1,amazon prime video,6,amazon series,2,american series,1,amzon movies,2,and download movies,1,android,44,android apps,15,Android Apps to Watch and Download Movies for Free,1,Android Auto,3,android gps,1,android studio,1,android system,1,android tv,1,android update,2,android11,7,antitrust,1,antivirus,2,app store,15,app to watch movies for free,1,app to watch series free,1,AppGallery,1,apple,39,Apple CarPlay,1,Apple Music,1,apple one,1,Apple Pay,1,Apple TV+,1,apple watch,2,apple WWDC,1,applications,1,artificial intelligence,3,Assambly Bill 5,1,Atlanta's Missing And Murdered,1,atlas iptv,1,Audi,2,audio profile,1,Australia,1,authentification,1,auto-delete google web,1,autonomous driving,2,autonomous driving levels,1,autopilot,3,awards,1,Away,1,AWS,2,aws honeycode,1,Azur Cloud Service,1,back uo gmail,1,back up google account,1,back up power,1,ban,2,battery,2,battery autonomy,1,Bayern Munich,1,best android applications to learn english,1,best google maps alternatives,1,best iptv player,1,best movies,1,best series,2,best sites to strea,1,beta,5,beta-testing program,1,bethesda,1,Bill Gtaes,1,Biohackers,1,Black Lives Matte,1,Black Panther,2,Black Widow,1,blender,1,blockchain,1,blog,1,Bluetooth,1,BMW,2,BMW aytopilot,1,BMW Maps,1,BMW softwre,1,boring company,1,Boris Johnson,1,box-office,1,boycott,2,brasil,1,broadband internet,3,bug bounty program,1,bugs,1,BYD,1,ByteDance,9,cables,2,California,2,campaign,1,Canonical,1,car company,1,cardsharing,1,casa de papel,1,cat 5e,1,cat 6,1,cccam protocol,1,cccam server,1,cellular network,1,certified hdmi,1,Chadwick Boseman,2,champions league,1,change your Facebook name,1,charger,3,cherlize theron,1,Cheverolet,1,China,10,Chris evans,1,christopher nolan,1,chrome,10,chrome 84,1,chrome 85,1,chrome os,2,chrome update,1,Chrome86,1,chromebook,2,Chromecast,1,ChromeOS,1,Chrysler,1,cinema,6,climate change,1,clipboard,1,cloud,1,Cloud computing service,1,cloud hosting,1,cloud storage,1,cobra kai,2,code activation valid,1,code gratis xtream,1,code iptv,1,colon cancer,1,commission,4,compact car,1,competition,1,configure perfect player,1,Configure Simple player iptv,1,congress,2,connected bracelet,1,connected tv,1,conspiracy,2,conversion therapies,1,copy paste,1,copyright,1,coronavirus,1,couple,1,COVID-19,2,covid19-,1,create apps free,1,create apps without coding,1,Cupra el-Born,1,cyber-attack,7,cybersecurity,17,daillymotion,1,Dark ages,1,dark mode,2,data center,2,data collection,9,data leakage,1,data protection,8,dating apps,2,deactivate facebook account,1,deepfakes,1,defender application guard,1,delete facebook account,1,delete gmail,1,delete google history,1,delete google services,1,delete locatiob history,1,delete search history,1,deleted data android,1,deleted photos android,1,developers,1,development,1,digitalization,1,disinformation,1,diskdigger,1,Disney+,3,display mode,1,dlna,1,DNS,1,DNS-over-HTTPS,1,Docker,1,documentary series,2,DoH,1,Dolby Vision,1,donation,1,download data from facebook,1,download iptv player,1,download movies free English,1,download movies free online,1,downloads,1,dumpster,1,dunkirk,1,duo,1,e password,1,e-beetle,1,e-commerce,1,e-kafer,1,E-Ray,1,e-tron S,1,e-tron S Sportback,1,e-waste,1,earthquake,2,ebay,1,EC,1,ECJ,1,ECL Final,1,ecommerce,1,Eddie the Eagle,1,edge,1,education,1,electirc cars,4,electric car battery,4,electric cars,29,electric cars range,2,electric compact car,2,Electric Corvette,1,electric pickups,1,electric SUV,2,elon musk,18,energy,1,energy-intensive,1,Enola Holms,1,Epic Games,5,eSport,1,ethernet cables,1,exclusion,1,extension,1,F1,1,face to face,1,facebook,31,facebook dark mode,1,facial recognition,1,fair competition,1,fake news,7,fakespy,1,falcon iptv pro code,1,falcon9,1,fallout series,1,false advertising,1,fast charge,2,fast share,1,fast sharing,1,FCC,1,Fearless,1,fellowship,1,Fiat,1,file sharing,4,file transfer,4,filmmkaer mode,1,fin my device,1,firefox,5,Firefox Send,1,firefox update,1,Fisker Ocean electric SUV,1,flying taxis,1,ford,1,fordzilla,1,forecastapp,1,Fortnite,6,FortniteFree,2,Foundation,1,free apps gps,1,free cccam,1,free file server m3u,1,free gps android,1,free gps application,1,Free GPS on Android,1,free iptv,1,free iptv bein sport,1,free iptv code,1,free iptv daily,1,Free Iptv Extream Codes Active,1,free movie download sites without signing up,1,free movies,3,free streaming apk,1,free tv streaming online,1,free xtream iptv,1,Fuchsia,1,fully autonomous vehicle,2,fundraise,1,fundraising,2,G suite,1,GAFA,1,game apps,1,gaming,11,GeForce RTX 3000,1,General Motors,1,geolocation,1,German Federal Cartel Office,1,Germany,1,get free code,1,GitHub,1,gmail,4,google,55,google accessibility,1,google action block,1,google airdrop,1,google apps,10,google assistant,1,google camera,2,google chat,2,google chrome,7,google developers,1,google docs,2,google docs voice typing,1,google drive,2,google duo,1,Google HDMI Dongle,1,google maps,3,google meet,3,google news,1,google phone,1,google phone app,1,google photos,1,google photos memories,1,google pps,1,google rooms,1,google services,1,google stadia,3,google translate,1,googlr pixel,1,googpe chrome apps,1,gps apps,2,green energy,3,green it,1,gse smart iptv apk cracked,1,gse smart iptv application,1,gse smart iptv chromecast,1,gse smart iptv pro,1,gse smart iptv pro mac download,1,gse smart iptv windows,1,H.266 / VVC,1,Halo,1,Hannibal,1,Harry Styles,1,hashtag,1,hate speech,1,HBO,3,hd iptv activation code free,1,hdc,1,hdmi,4,hdmi cable,1,HDMI certification,1,HDR,2,HDR Pro,1,HDR10,1,HDR10+,1,hearing,1,HEVC Codec,1,HiCar system,1,hide a person from google photos,1,hide hashtag on twitter,1,high speed HDMI,1,high speed internet,2,high-defionition,1,high-tech,1,Hilary Swank,1,HoarmonyOS,1,homework,1,honeucode,1,horsepower,1,hosting services,1,how to,22,how to delete data from android,1,how to delete google account,1,HTTP/3,1,Huawei,9,hybrid cars,1,Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG),1,hydrogen fuel cells,1,iCloud,1,iDrive,1,indexing,1,india,3,instagram,12,instagram stories,2,instagram tips,1,install iptv on iptv smarters pro,1,install iptv on OttPlayer,1,install iptv on perfect player,1,instant chat,1,internet,2,Internet explorer,1,internet law,1,internet protocole,1,investement,2,investigation,4,ios,11,iOS14,5,iPad,2,iPhone,8,iPhone11,1,ipodos,1,iptv app,1,iptv apps,8,iptv codes,1,iptv codes code iptv,1,iptv generator,1,iptv links free 2020,1,Iptv M3u Playlists Free January 2020,1,iptv player,1,iptv player android,2,IPTV Player Applications for Android,1,iptv player m3u,1,iptv player online,1,iptv playlist,1,iptv smarters apk,1,iptv smarters code,1,iptv smarters download,1,iptv smarters firestick,1,IPTV Smarters Pro,1,iptv xtream gratis,1,iptv6.premium-stv,1,iptvfree,1,iptvsmarttv,1,jeff bezos,1,karaoke,1,karate kid,2,kim kardashian,1,kodi,1,kotlin,1,kuiper project,1,Laptop,2,las vegas,1,latest,4,lawsuit,1,legal action,1,LG,2,LGBTA,1,LGPD,1,LIDAR,1,lili rienhart,1,linkedin,1,Linux,3,lista iptv gratis,1,live transcribe and sound amplifier,1,live tv,1,live tv channels free online,1,location history,1,lockdown,1,logo,1,lost phone,1,Lovecraft Country,1,Lucid Air,1,lucifer,1,Lyft,1,m3u file player android,1,m3u player free,1,m3u player windows 10,1,m3u playlist url france,1,m3u smarters pro,1,M5-sedan,1,Mac,3,MAC addresse,1,Mac apps,1,MacBook,1,machine learning,1,MacOS,1,MacOS Big Sur,1,malicious apps,2,malware,5,manage activity,1,marletplace,1,math problems,1,mediastar iptv,1,messaging app,3,Messenger,1,micopsoft store,1,micro-hybrids,1,microsoft,36,Microsoft Flight Simulator,1,microsoft surface duo,4,microsoft teams,2,Minecraft,1,Miracle Workers,1,misinformation,5,mobile apps,3,modely price,1,monitization,1,monopoly,6,Moto G 5G Plus,1,motorola,1,movie catalogue,1,movie streaming apps for android,1,movies,9,mozilla,1,multitasking,1,music,1,mute words,1,myiptv player windows 7,1,natick project,1,nearby share,2,nearby sharing,1,neo-nazi,1,Netflix,43,netflix catalogue,1,netflix free trial,1,netflix money-back,1,netflix movies,7,netflix news,1,netflix party,2,netflix sequels,1,netflix series,14,News,181,news feed,1,Nokia,1,notification,1,Nvidia,1,OCS,1,OLED,5,on line tv,59,OnePlus tv,2,OnePlus TV U1,1,OnePlus TV Y1,1,OneWeb,1,online education,1,Online forms,1,online store,1,Online Tv,3,online tv live,1,Open source,1,OpenSSF,1,Operating system,1,optimization,1,Oracle,1,orbitiptv,1,OS,9,ottplayer apk,1,ottplayer code,1,ottplayer listas,1,panasonic,1,pandemic,3,password,1,people cards identity cards,1,personal data,17,phone,1,pinned comments,1,pishing emails,2,pixel,1,play store,5,playlist ottplayer,1,playstation,1,plug-in hubrids,1,premium hdmi,1,price manipulation,1,prime video,2,prime video subscription,1,privacy,8,private network,1,products,2,profile verification,1,programming language,1,Project Power,1,PSA,1,PSG,1,Q4 Sportback e-tron,1,QLED,4,QR Code,1,Qualcomm,1,Quibi,1,quick charge,2,ransomware,2,realme,2,realme smart tv,1,realme tv,1,recover data android,1,recover files,1,recover photos android,1,recycling,1,red iptv code,1,reels,3,release16,1,renewable energy,1,replace google maps,1,retreive photos android,1,reverdale,1,rivian,1,robinhood,1,Rooms,1,Russia,1,Ryan Gosling,1,sabrina,1,safari,2,samsung,2,satellite internet,6,save battery life,2,screen definition,3,screen resolution,3,screen size,2,seabubbles,1,Search Engine,2,search history,1,search video,1,seat,1,Secure DNS,1,Security,4,self-driving,5,sensor,1,SEO,2,series,5,ShakeAlert,1,short videos,1,shorts,1,Shuffle Play,1,sidelinking,1,silicon valley,1,simple iptv player for windows 10,1,siri,1,smart tv,8,smartphone,6,smartphones,18,smash,1,snapchat,1,soccer,1,social media,78,softaware,2,softawre update,7,software,4,software updates,7,Sony,1,space industry,1,space network,1,SpaceX,7,Spanish series,1,speed up internet,1,speedtest,2,Sport,1,spotify,4,SSL,1,Starlink,5,Starlink router,2,start-up,3,startups,1,Starzplay,1,steam,1,Stellanis,1,stock market,1,stolen phone,1,storage service,1,stranger things season 4,1,stranger things season 5,1,stream music,3,streaming,56,streaming apps,2,streaming apps download,1,streaming platforms,3,subscription,8,sundar pichai,1,superheroes,1,superpower,1,surface neo,2,technology,1,telecharger fichier m3u iptv,1,telecom,1,Telefoot,1,telework,1,teleworking,1,Tendances,2,tenet,1,tesla,21,tesla million mile battery,1,tesla model 3,2,tesla model S,1,tesla model y,1,tesla superchargers,1,The Best IPTV Players for Windows PCs,1,the old guard,1,The sleepover,1,the umbrella academy,1,the witcher,4,third-party camera apps,1,tiktok,29,tiktok stars,1,tim cook,1,tinder,2,TLS,1,TomTom Go,1,toyota,1,tracking permissions,1,trade war,4,trademark,1,trading,1,trailer,1,translation,1,translation tools,1,transparency,2,traveling,1,Triller,1,Trump,20,tunnel,1,TV,22,tv show,2,twisted pairs,1,twitch,1,twitter,9,twitter privacy,2,two factor authentification,1,Uber,1,UK,2,Ultra HD Premium,1,umbrella academy,1,United States,1,unreal engine,1,UPnP,1,US Elections,1,USA,2,user data,1,user profile,1,verified calls,1,video calls,2,video chat,1,video coding,1,video meetings,2,video sharing,1,vikings,1,viral videos,1,virus,2,voice assistant,1,voicetyping,1,volkswagen,3,volkswagen ID.3,1,vpn,1,wall street journal,1,walmart,2,Warnet Tv,1,Warrior Nun,1,watch and download movies,2,watch free live channels,1,watch free tv online gratuit,1,watch movies offline,1,watch tv online live streaming,1,watchOS,1,web browser,9,wechat,4,westworld,1,WeTransfer,1,what is cccam,1,whatch party,1,whatsapp,5,whatsapp account,1,whatsapp animated stickers,1,whatsapp beta,1,whatsapp cash transfer,1,whatsapp money transfer,1,white supremacists,1,Win32 App,1,windows,6,windows 10,14,windows 10 start menu,2,windows 10 updates,1,windows 10X,2,windows defender,2,windows file recovery,1,windows10,1,wireless chargers,1,wireless connection,1,wrap charge,2,WSL 1,1,WSL 2,1,Xbox,4,xbox series s,1,xCloud,3,Xiaomi,4,Xiaomi Mi TV Master Series,1,xtream codes download,1,xtream codes forum,1,xtream codes iptv apk,1,xtream codes iptv login,1,xtream codes smarters pro,1,xtream iptv gratuit,1,xtream iptv player apk,1,xtream server,1,xtream tv app,2,xtream userna,1,xtream-codes-free,4,your phone apps,1,youtube,8,youtube history,1,youtube originals,1,Zuckerberg,2,برنامج windows iptv player,1,كود تجريبي iptv,1,
ltr
item
SimTurax Tech Blog: Autonomous driving Levels: what are the differences?
Autonomous driving Levels: what are the differences?
Driving assistance, autonomous driving systems, 100% autonomous cars. What is behind these terms and what are the different autonomous driving Levels?
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-0ChfMuf8XYI/XwEfC_0r88I/AAAAAAAAAss/1mwhn8IQEiY8GqxbJEUz3PrfF6FFdLcrwCPcBGAYYCw/s640/opel-corsa-e.jpg
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-0ChfMuf8XYI/XwEfC_0r88I/AAAAAAAAAss/1mwhn8IQEiY8GqxbJEUz3PrfF6FFdLcrwCPcBGAYYCw/s72-c/opel-corsa-e.jpg
SimTurax Tech Blog
https://www.simturax.com/2020/07/autonomous-driving-levels-what-are-differences.html
https://www.simturax.com/
https://www.simturax.com/
https://www.simturax.com/2020/07/autonomous-driving-levels-what-are-differences.html
true
1063977344081638578
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED STEP 1: Share to a social network STEP 2: Click the link on your social network Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy Table of Content